Animals in Bardia National Park

There are many kind of animals in Bardia National park.Still it undisturbed wildlife area in Nepal.When guest reach in Bardia they feel they are in the jungle. Some animals are listed as below:

LARGE MAMMALS

Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)
The richest wildlife habitat is the riverine belt together with tall grassland and Sal forest. Wild elephants are the largest animals found in the park. The traditional migratory routes of these pachyderms have been destroyed by settlement, with the result that the elephant population is fragmented. In spite of its Latin name, the Indian elephant is not the biggest; the African bush elephant is larger, the maximum known weight being over 7 tons, compared with the Asian elephant’s 5 tones. Adult Asiatic males average 9 feet at the shoulder and female 8 feet. Gestation period is about 22 months.

Greater one horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros nicornis)
The largest of the three species of Asiatic rhinoceri; there is approximately 1500 left in the Indian sub-continent and this constitutes the world population of the species. Folds in the thick skin of this rhino give the impression of armour plating. The horn is formed of closely matted fibrous tissue issuing from the skin. The horn grows throughout life and if lost is reproduced.

This massive animal was formerly found in the region, but became locally extinct during the second half of the last century. Re-introduction, beginning in late 1986 has moved over 50 rhinos from Chitwan National Park to two localities in Bardia. They are breeding in their new habitat but have suffered from poaching pressure.

Habitat destruction and heavy poaching of this animal for its horn, believed by the Chinese to be of great medicinal value, have been largely responsible for the decline in population during recent decades. Gestation period is about sixteen months with the young weighing around 130 pounds at birth.

Spotted Deer or Chital (Axis axis)
Perhaps, the most graceful and beautiful of all deer. This is easily identifiable by the white spots on its brown coat. The stags have long antlers with three tines. They prefer open forest and the margins between the forest and grassland. They are prolific breeders and the most common deer in the park. The peak of the mating season is in late spring. The gestation period is eight months.

Hog Deer (Axis porcinus)
Related to the spotted deer but smaller and less graceful. The name is derived from its squat appearance and habit of running with the head down instead of bounding like other deer. Sometimes found in groups, they prefer the grassland margins of river beds. They are wary animals with acute sense of sight, smell and hearing. The gestation period is eight months.

Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak)
This reddish coloured deer seen singly or in pairs, is the smallest of five kinds of deer in the park, prefers densely forested hills but is sometimes found in the lowlands. The antlers are small, consisting of a short brow-tine and an unbranched beam. In does tuft of bristly hair replace horns. The name is derived from its alarm call, which sounds rather like a dog’s bark.

Samber (Cervus unicolor)
This is the largest of the deer in the sub-continent and a big stag may weigh 600 to 700 pounds. It has a shaggy brown coat and stags possess thick antlers with three tines the full number of points being reached in the fourth year. Forested hillsides are their preferred habitat and their diet consists of grass leaves and wild fruits. Their powers of sight are moderate but scent and hearing acute. Rarely found associating in large numbers stags leave the hinds after the mating season in the autumn to lead a solitary life.

Nilgai or Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus)
Largest of the sub-continent’s antelope species, the robust Blue Bull is found in small herds inhabiting scrubland and forest margins at the edge of the park. Adult males are a slate bluish-grey colour, with tuft of stiff black hair on the throat and cone-like horns averaging eight inches in length. Females are a tawny brown and lack horns.

Black Buck (Antelope cervicapra)
A graceful antelope of the open plains, they may be seen in small herds. The bucks are black with a white eye ring and undersides and their spiralled horns may reach twenty inches. The young males and hornless females are brown. There is a small population of black buck in open country near cultivated land southeast of the park. There have been attempts to introduce black buck, mainly zoo animals.

Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)
With its sparse black coat and bristled mane a large boar may stand three feet at the shoulder and weight 300 pounds. The males have razor sharp tusks. The wild boar is omnivorous and its diet includes roots, tubers, insects, snakes and carrion. They feed normally in the early morning of the late evening. Four to six young are born at one time and the mother shelters them in a heaped up mass of grass or branches, which she builds before she gives birth.

Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris)
An endangered animal, there are less than 3000 tigers of this sub-species remaining in the Indian sub-continent. Secretive and essentially solitary, this big cat is less strictly nocturnal than formerly, due to the protection it has received in the park. Nevertheless, it is a difficult animal to see in the wild. Bardia has a moderate tiger population, with an estimated under 25 adults and total of about 60 tigers of all ages. The preferred habitat of these cats are the grassland and riverine forest along the Karnali and Babai rivers, where there is a variety and abundance of prey.

Leopard (Panthera nardus)
Although leopard co-exist with tiger, the later are socially dominant and are intolerant of the former, Leopard are not common in prime tiger habitat but are concentrated on the periphery, dependent both on natural prey, taking some of the same species as the tiger, but generally smaller species; and on domestic livestock. Leopard sightings are not as frequent as tiger sightings in Bardia.

Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus)
A handsome reddish hunting dog with a dark muzzle and a black tipped tail, these predators run down their prey. In some parts of the sub-continent they hunt in packs of eight or more adults. They are rarely seen at Bardia and only singly or in pairs.

Golden Jackel (Canis aureus)
A smaller relative of the wolf, the jackal’s coloration varies from tawny brown to grey and are generally found in pairs. They hunt small mammals and birds, but are also scavengers. They are mainly nocturnal and the jackal’s howl is often heard at night.

Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena)
Found chiefly in scrubland at the edge of the park, this tawny or grey scavenger/predator with black transverse stripes has powerful jaws. Sightings are rare.

Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista gangetica)
This critically endangered fresh water dolphin, up to eight feet in length, is found in the Karnali River. It surfaces to breathe about once a minute. The jaws of this almost sightless animal are adapted for browsing on bottom living crustaceans. Bardia is the best place in Nepal to see a fresh water dolphin.

SMALL MAMMALS

These include the Common Langur monkey (Presbytus entelrus), Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis), Large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha), Small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), Asian Palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), Jungle cat (Felis chaus), Leopard cat (Felis bengalensis), Fishing cat (Felis viverrina), Yellow- throated Marten (Martes flavigula), Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata), Common Indian Mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), Indian Hare (Lepus nigricollis), Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus), Indian Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus), Short-nosed Fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx), Indian Pipestrelle (Pipestrellus coromandra), Common Yellow bat (Scotophilus heathii), Hoarybellied Himalayan Squirrel (Callousiurus stenensi), Five-striped Palm Squirrel (Funambulus pennanti), Fulvus Fruit Bat (Rousttus leschenaulti), Chinese Pangolin (Minis pentadactyla), Ratel or Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis), Grey Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus)

REPTILES

Gharial (Gavialis ganeticus)
This fresh water species, the most endangered of all the world’s crocodilians is found in the Karnali river of Bardia National Park. Their long thin snout has evolved for catching fish. Gharial of 20 feet long has been recorded elsewhere in the sub-continent.

Marsh Mugger (Crocodilus palustris)
This crocodile is a common sight on the banks of ponds, lakes and occasionally in the river. An opportunistic predator, it eats everything it can capture and also eats carrion. A large mugger may exceed 12 feet in length.

Snakes
Largest snake of the park is the Indian Rock Python (Python molurus molurus). This python may exceed 20 feet and in Bardia 17 feet specimens have been recorded. Other snakes both poisonous and non poisonous are King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), Rat snake (Ptyas mucosa), Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus), Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii).

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